Category Archives: china

White-handed Gibbons Now Presumed ‘Extinct’ In China, Forest Survey Shows


ScienceDaily (May 22, 2008) — China’s fauna exhibits a unique diversity of apes. Unfortunately, the apes are more seriously endangered by extinction in China than in any other country. A research team assembled by anthropologists of Zurich University now conclude that another ape species has just become extinct in China’s Yunnan province.

A scientific team, consisting of members of the Gibbon Conservation Alliance based at Zurich University and the Kunming Institute of Zoology, as well as staff members of the Nangunhe National Nature Reserve, carried out a survey in all Chinese forests that had been reported as supporting white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) during the last 20 years.

The species was last observed in 1988 in the Nangunhe Nature Reserve in south-western Yunnan province, and their loud, melodious calls were last heard in 1992. After two weeks of field work, the 14 member Swiss-Chinese team realized that as a result of continued forest destruction, fragmentation and deterioration, as well as hunting, this gibbon species is no longer part of the Chinese fauna.

“This loss is particularly tragic”, says anthropologist Thomas Geissmann, “because the extinct Chinese population was described as a distinct subspecies, the so-called Yunnan white-handed gibbon.” This subspecies (Hylobates lar yunnanensis) is not known from any other place. Geissmann now hopes, that the subspecies may have survived in neighbouring Myanmar, but so far, he has no evidence for this.

“The extinction of the Chinese white-handed gibbons is an urgent alarm signal, because several other ape species in Chinas are also endangered by extinction”, says Geissmann. For instance the white-cheeked crested gibbon (Nomascus leucogenys) has not been sighted in China since the 1980s. Of the Cao-Vit crested gibbon (N. nasutus) in the provinces Guangxi (China) and Cao Bang (Vietnam) there are less than 50 individuals, and of the Hainan crested gibbon (N. hainanus) on the South-Chinese island of Hainan less than 20 individuals, to mention just the two most endangered species. Therefore, the scientists warn that the loss of the Yunnan white-handed gibbons may only be the beginning of an unprecedented wave of extinctions which threatens to terminate most, if not all, Chinese ape species.

“We hope that our research results will alarm the Chinese government as well as international conservation agencies and encourage them to initiate immediate efforts to save China’s last surviving apes”, says Geissmann.

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Chinese police seize endangered pangolins from home


BEIJING, Jan 19 (Reuters) – A foul stench led Chinese police to a home where they found 16 protected pangolins in cages and plastic bags, and another 37 dead ones in the refrigerator, the Xinhua news agency said on Saturday.

The rescued pangolins, an endangered scaly ant eater sought for their skin and for use in Chinese medicine, ranged in size from the palm of a human hand to four kilograms, Xinhua said, citing the local Forest Police Station.

One bear paw was also found in the fridge in the house in southern China’s Guangdong Province.

Four suspects were arrested, Xinhua said.

The solitary and nocturnal pangolin is found only in Asia and Africa. Its meat is considered a delicacy for some, its scaly skin can be made into handbags and shoes, and its scales and blood are used in Chinese medicine to treat allergies and sexually transmitted disease.

All international trade in the animals was banned in 2000.

Earlier this month, two men in the southern city of Xiamen received suspended death sentances for smugging 17 containers of pangolin meat and scales worth 23 million yuan ($3.2 million) into China. ($1 = 7.242 Yuan) (Reporting by Lucy Hornby; Editing by David Fogarty)

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Chinese Crested Terns Heading for Extinction – Yang Xi

The Chinese Crested Tern is the most endangered bird to date in China. This bird’s common name indicates its close relationship with China. In 1863 scientists gave the bird a Latin name – “Sternabernsteni” but Chinese also call the animal “Shenhua Zhinao” or the “Mythical Bird”, because it is rare and mysterious.

“There are less than fifty Chinese Crested Terns in China,” Chen Shuihua, deputy curator of Museum of Natural History of Zhejiang Province and also the most authoritative expert on Chinese Crested Terns research, said. He did not disclose the exact number. The number of Chinese Crested Terns around the world has reduced by half in the past three years, according to a survey.

The earliest record of the Chinese Crested Terns in China dates from 1863. In 1937, Chinese scientists collected 21 specimens of the birds, including 15 females and 6 males near Qingdao in Shandong Province. Few similar records were made in the following sixty-three years. Some scientists only kept minimal records without photos in the Beidaihe Region in Hebei Province (1978) and in the Yellow River Delta of Dongying in Shandong Province (1991). Many ornithologists believed that the birds were extinct.

Big surprise

Surprisingly, in June 2004 an avian photographer from Taiwan, Liang Jiede, took pictures and unexpectedly found four adult pairs of Chinese Crested Terns and four juvenile birds in his photos after developing his film.
In 2003 Chen Shuihua began to lead an investigation into propagating sea birds along the coastal areas of Zhejiang Province, while putting emphasis on Chinese Crested Terns.

Chen Shuihua led a group out to sea to start another investigation in June 2004 because he wanted to set a new record. “None of the ornithologists had gone to sea to do their investigations due to the danger and expense, so little investigation into sea birds in China has ever been carried out,” Chen said. Unfortunately, his investigation did not have a happy ending.

Chen Shuihua set out to the sea several times in 2004 during the sea birds’ breeding season from June to August. Chen’s group found almost twenty Chinese Crested Terns on August 1, 2004 in the central coastal areas of Zhejiang Province.

The main reason for the sharp decrease of Chinese Crested Terns is due to rampant collecting of sea bird eggs. These rare birds will go extinct in five years if such illegal practices are not forbidden, according to an article published by the Bird Life International.

Chen Shuihua has identified the Chinese Crested Tern as a flagship specimen of the marine ecosystem. He believes that the extinction of this bird would mean the destruction of the entire marine ecosystem, so he strongly advocates protecting all sea birds.
Bird Life International has suggested that the mainland and Taiwan should cooperate in rescue efforts directed at Chinese Crested Terns.

This July in Taiwan Chen Shuihua was invited to participate in a meeting that focused on how to create a cooperative effort to protect Chinese Crested Terns. Chen has worked out a five-year plan for their protection. “I hope that efficient measures can be enforced within five years to ensure the successful breeding and survival of these birds and that we can make more detailed investigations in order to obtain greater understanding about these birds,” Chen said.

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Taiwan, China join to save rare sea bird from extinction

GMA News (AP)

TAIPEI, Taiwan – Taiwanese and mainland Chinese conservationists are joining hands to save an endangered sea bird from extinction by urging fishermen to stop collecting and eating the birds’ eggs, a Taiwanese birdwatcher said Monday.

The Chinese crested tern – white with a black-and-white crest – migrates to eastern Chinese coasts between May and September, Taiwanese conservationists say. It’s thought the birds fly there to escape the heat in South Asia, although they have not been seen outside of China or Taiwan.

The sea bird was spotted for the first time in 2000 on the Taiwan-controlled Matsu island – just 1 kilometer (0.6 mile) from China’s southeastern coast. Matsu authorities have since stepped up monitoring the bird and set aside several locations in the island group as sanctuaries.

Taiwanese have stopped eating sea birds’ eggs in recent years, but Chinese fishermen often sneak onto Matsu to collect the eggs, which are prized as a delicacy in parts of China, said Chang Shou-hua, head of the Matsu Birdwatching Society.

”Sea birds’ eggs are smelly and infected with parasites, and when fishermen collect the eggs in the grass they disrupt the birds’ breeding habitats,” Chang said.

A Chinese survey conducted over recent successive breeding seasons found that the number of crested terns had fallen to 50 birds, about half the population found three years ago, according to Birdlife International, a conservation group based in Cambridge, England. The group warns that the crested tern could become extinct in five years if protection efforts are not stepped up.

Taiwanese birders recently sought to collaborate with mainland conservationists after learning the bird has appeared along the coasts of China’s Zhejiang and Fujian Provinces, said Chang.

A group of conservationists from Jiushan islands off east China visited the Matsu sanctuary two months ago and agreed to strive for the bird’s preservation, first by seeking legislation to bar fishermen from collecting the sea bird’s eggs, Chang said.

The Chinese and Taiwanese have also agreed to begin a joint survey next summer – during the birds’ migration period – to determine the size of their population, he said.

Taiwanese conservationists are studying whether to use global positioning system to track down the sea bird’s mysterious migration routes, Chang said.

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Bird, monkey species in Cambodia added to critically endangered list


Two types of birds and one species of monkey native to Cambodia have had their survival prospects worsen significantly in the past year, according to the World Conservation Union’s 2007 “Red List”, the most comprehensive annual assessment of the world’s endangered animals and plants, local media reported Wednesday.

The red-headed vulture and the Bengal florican, once abundant in Cambodia, have been re-classified as critically endangered, meaning they face an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild in the immediate future, the Cambodia Daily newspaper said.

Meanwhile, the douc monkey has also been elevated to endangered status worldwide, according to the World Conservation Union, or IUCN.

Recent worldwide declines in the population of red-headed vultures are believed mainly to have been caused by the pharmaceutical Diclofenac, which is used to treat livestock but toxic to vultures that feed on their carcasses, the IUCN report said, adding that there could be as few as 300 of the vultures remaining in all of Southeast Asia.

The Bengal florican has declined to as few as 900 birds in Cambodia and could be extinct in the country within five years, the report stated.

The douc monkey also faces a very high risk of extinction in the near future, it said.

Tom Evans, technical adviser for the Wildlife Conservation Society, said the decline of the red-headed vulture in Cambodia was mainly due to less carrion on the ground than poisoning.

In fact, Diclofenac is not used in Cambodia, which could mean there is a good chance for the species to begin recover its numbers here, he said.

Included on the “Red List” are 26 animals, fish and plants found in Cambodia, which are listed as critically endangered, and some 36 species listed as endangered.


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Chinese Seabird on Verge of Extinction

Associated Press 

BEIJING (AP) — The Chinese crested tern, a rare sea bird whose eggs are prized by some as a delicacy, is likely to be extinct in five years if authorities do not step up protection efforts, a conservation group said Friday.

The bird looks set to be the latest ecological victim of China’s rapid 30-year economic expansion and industrialization, which has raised the standard of living for hundreds of millions of Chinese but ravaged the environment. Late last year, scientists declared that a rare Chinese river dolphin was effectively extinct after conducting a fruitless six-week search for the creature in its Yangtze River habitat.

A survey by a team of Chinese experts conducted over recent successive breeding seasons found that the number of crested terns had fallen to 50 birds, about half the population found three years ago, said a statement from BirdLife International, a conservation group based in Cambridge, England.

“Without urgent action conservationists have given the bird less than five years before disappearing completely from its two remaining breeding areas,” the statement said.

It quoted head of the Chinese survey team Chen Shuihua as saying the bird was “on the verge of extinction.”

The biggest threat to the birds was the collection of eggs by local fisherman in the bird’s breeding areas, the Jiushan islands and Matsu island off China’s east coast, the statement quoted Chen, a researcher from the Zhejiang Museum of Natural History, as saying.

The tern eggs, which locals believe are more nutritious than poultry eggs, were found at sidewalk snack booths in the Chinese coastal provinces of Zhejiang and Fujian for about $5 each and also in markets in Matsu, which is controlled by Taiwan, the statement said.

Authorities need to stop the collection and sale of the eggs, step up monitoring of the birds and do more to protect their breeding habitats, it said.

The baiji, or white flag dolphin, survived for millions of years but was declared extinct in December. Around 400 baiji were believed to be living in the Yangtze in the early 1980s, but their survival was made impossible by dramatic increases in ship traffic, overfishing and the degradation of their habitat.

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World’s species to be ‘barcoded’

Preserving their information for posterity?

Scientists are already working on hand-held barcoders to access a barcode data bank [AFP:: Al Jazeera]

A group of Canadian scientists is hoping to raise $150 million to fund an initial five-year stage of what they describe as the biodiversity equivalent of launching a rocket to the moon.

The technology could help remove illegal fish and timber supplies from global markets, get rid of pests such as mosquitoes and even reduce the numbers of collisions between birds and planes.

“Like in the film of Star Trek, anything scanned by such devices could display its image, name and function”

Allen Chen, Academia Sinica, Taiwan

“We’re now trying to launch in Canada the International Barcode of Life Project, which has a five-year life span,” Paul Hebert, head of the Canadian Centre for DNA Barcoding, who is spearheading the project told AFP at a three-day seminar on DNA in Taipei.

“We hope to put $150 million into this through a 25-nation alliance.”

“The idea is collectively we would gather five million specimens and 500,000 species within that five-year period,” Hebert added, saying the entire project could take 15 years.

The seminar in Taipei has brought together 350 scientists from 45 countries to debate the “barcoding of life” concept.

Scientists estimate that while nearly 1.8 million species have already been identified, there may be another 10 million that are not known.

But DNA barcoding technology has progressed so rapidly that scientists predict that science fiction-style powers to recognise previously unfamiliar creatures could become reality in a decade.

“Like in the film of Star Trek, anything scanned by such devices could display its image, name and function,” said Allen Chen from Taiwan’s Academia Sinica, Taiwan’s top academic body and one of three main organisers of the conference.

“This could be done 10 years from now after a global barcoding data bank is set up,” said Chen, an expert in corals.

Scientists are already working on hand-held barcoders that would enable users to access a barcode data bank using a global positioning system, said Taiwan’s Shao Kwang-tsao, one of the conference chairs.

Hebert said the alliance would invest heavily in the development of such technology.

This week’s conference is being held by the Washington-based Consortium for the Barcode of Life, which was set up in 2003 in response to Hebert’s initiative and now includes some 160 organisations.

At its first conference in London in 2005, the consortium’s data banks collected some 33,000 DNA references belonging to some 12,700 species.

Increasing attention

Today it counts more than 290,000 DNA samples from some 31,000 species, including about 20 per cent of the world’s estimated 10,000 bird species and 10 per cent of the 35,000 estimated marine and freshwater fish species.

The “barcoding of life” projects have drawn increasing attention, particularly from the US, Canada and Europe, as scientists explore the technique’s applications, which range from food safety and consumer protection to the identification of herbal plants.

One British scientist is working on a project to barcode 2,800 species of mosquito, or 80 per cent of those known to the world, within two years.

The project is aimed at reducing the scourge of malaria, which infects some 500 million people a year and is spread by some mosquitoes.

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River Dolphin Population “Dying”

Australian Associated Press (AAP) / The Age (Australia)
Monday 03 September 2007

The world’s river dolphin population is dying out thanks to bad environmental practices that also threaten the health of their human neighbours, an international environmental conference has been told.

The 10th annual Riversymposium, Australia’s largest river management conference, brings around 500 delegates from 40 countries to Brisbane from Monday to discuss river health, damming practices, drought and climate change.

WWF river dolphin initiative coordinator Anna Forslund said China’s Yangtze river, the Mekong river in Cambodia, the Ganges river in India and the Indus river system in Pakistan were among the world’s most endangered rivers as evidenced by their dwindling river dolphin populations.

Ms Forslund said many people had never heard of river dolphins, which were smaller than marine dolphins, had a longer snout and were often blind, but they were one of the most threatened species in the world with some populations now comprising between 1,000 to just a handful of wild creatures.

She said dolphin populations had been suffering from damming, overfishing, bad farming and mining practices, pollution and sewage since the 1970s.

“You can see the link, river dolphins are dependent on the water and the people are dependent on the water so the levels of toxicity is probably the same in people living there – low levels of dolphins means unhealthy water,” she said.

Outgoing WWF global freshwater program director Jamie Pittock said the case study of river dolphins was bad news for humans.

They’re really the canaries of the rivers – if the river dolphin population is healthy then the river’s healthy,” Mr Pittock said.

“Millions and millions of people, well they’re suffering now, and they’ll suffer even more if the dolphins go extinct because extinction of the dolphins means that the rivers are terribly polluted, there’s not enough water, fish are dying and people in these countries are drinking the water from these rivers.”

He said many people did not realise humans were just as susceptible to the environment as animals.

He said around 50 WWF representatives were working in the countries to restore the health to the ecosystems by rescuing dolphins, providing farming education and reducing poverty so villagers had the resources to look after their own environments.

He said it was hoped outlining the program’s successes would prompt more scientists and financial backers from Australia to get involved.


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Endangered Horses Killed on Highway in Xinjiang

 From Xinhua news Agency

A Przewalski’s horse, an endangered species, was killed on a highway in northwest China’s Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on Saturday, the third such horse since August 15 that died after being released into nature.

The horse, born earlier this year, was hit to death by a bus at about 1 AM Saturday on No. 216 national highway running through the Karamay Nature Reserve in Altay of northern Xinjiang, said Han Zhidong, head of the Altay forest police bureau.

Police detained the driver at about 10 AM who confessed to the misdeed.

Two other Przewalski’s horses were killed in mid August on the same highway. Police have posted a reward of 20,000 yuan for witnesses, but there was no reply yet.

Przewalski’s horses have existed for 60 million years, and are the only surviving wild horse species in the world. They were first known to the outside world in 1879 when Russian explorer Nikolay Przewalski discovered them in Xinjiang.

A German party captured 52 of the horses in 1890 to transport them back to Hamburg, but only 28 survived the journey. The thousand or so Przewalski’s horses in the world, including those in Xinjiang, are said to be the offspring of those survivors.

The horses disappeared in this westernmost region of China due to excessive poaching and environmental degradation over a period of 100 years before 1986.

To bring Przewalski’s horses back to Junggar Basin, their natural habitat, the Chinese government has included them in a protection scheme for eight endangered animal species.

The number of Przewalski’s horses in the world is only about 1,300. China has released nearly 50 into nature since 2001.

(Xinhua News Agency September 2, 2007)

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Signs indicate life on earth is facing a new mass extinction

 From Weird News.

 Carboniferous-Permian geological history is the most critical period

Carboniferous and Permian is the final two Paleozoic century, representatives from 354 million years ago to 252 million years ago the historical stage. Carboniferous-Permian the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere evolution are in a very crucial stage of evolution. Geological history of north-south pole of the pan-continent during this period due to large-scale activities to form plate; Carboniferous-Permian also occurred early largest glacier; Carboniferous history of the Earth is also the largest-scale carbon burial period, the rest of the world at present a large number of coal mining resources in that period formed.

Carboniferous-Permian was a world full of vigor, biological species very busy, biodiversity than any time before, in a fairly long period of time to maintain stability and prosperity in the forests there were even two-meter-long wings of dragonflies. Marine life during this period is very busy. However, in the late Permian geological period, the largest of biological extinction events.

CAS Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology researcher Shen Shuzhong in an interview with reporters, said that attending the “16th International Carboniferous-Permian geological conference,” Chinese and foreign scientists, in the Carboniferous-Permian biological evolution and the environment with the theme around the Carboniferous-Permian JI biota and climate change, isotope geochemistry and geology biology, sedimentology and stratigraphy, high-resolution integrated biological stratigraphy, the end of the Permian mass extinction and environmental background, “gold nail” with the global comparison, the Earth time system of extensive discussions and exchange views.

In recent years, China end of the Permian mass extinction in the sea and continental strata record, as reflected in the model, the Carboniferous-Permian flora and ancient climate evolution of the Carboniferous-Permian the “gold nail” and high-resolution stratigraphic correlation, Quantitative paleontology and stratigraphy research by foreign experts to the concerns . By the late 0800-gan led by the International Working Group to establish a China Lopingian represented by international standards, the Upper Permian most two “golden nails” were nailed on Changxing Meishan in Zhejiang and Guangxi in Penglai profile guests around Meishan section Zhejiang end of the Permian mass extinction research has made the world attention achievements.

As the Carboniferous-Permian, and the importance of research achievements in recent years, the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology of the Late Paleozoic group formed by the State Natural Science Fund Committee, the outstanding innovation groups, groups several members of the international Carboniferous and Permian stratigraphy branch of the Election Committee members, international Carboniferous-Permian related research played a substantial role.

Super extinction

Extinction of biological taxa is unable to adapt to environmental changes and to survive, life is the history of endless natural events, competition among species, and natural selection led to the extinction of the conventional rate of extinction. But some large numbers of biological groups in a short time away, but the whole world, and lead to a sudden cluster of extinction, paleontologists have been called mass extinction. Since Precambrian biological outbreak since there were five major extinctions, which occurred in ancient at the turn of the Mesozoic, that is the end of the Permian mass extinction, the largest of biological development of the most profound impact.

CAS Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology 0800-gan academicians wrote : “This is a super extinction, the diversity of marine life down to below one-tenth of the original ecosystem has been completely updated, as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic pillar, and all other extinctions are far from it and Great extinction, nor biological evolution process in such a major turning point. ”

Long time, the mystery of the extinction of dinosaurs has been featured, in fact, since the late 18th century, scientists around the world have not only studied the extinction of dinosaurs true, the first study to or after the extinction of dinosaurs to extinction of other events. Although the extinction of dinosaurs to the theory of evolution had a tremendous impact, but compared to those living in the Carboniferous-Permian biological, the dinosaur extinction event is not the most “tragic”.

“Geological period, the largest-scale extinction events occurred in the late Permian, the statistics show that on the Earth, and more than 90% of marine species and 75% of land species in all this period of extinction.” Shen Shuzhong said.

The end of the Permian, corals, dragonflies calcareous sponges, brachiopods, trilobites, such as fixing the sea, feeding the passive category of extinction or have a large number of abatement, reef ecosystem collapse, burying carbon stop. The terrestrial species, the Carboniferous-Permian flora ferns mainly to the coastal swamp forest zone formation, but to the rapid demise of the late Permian, miniature plants to replace. Four-footed vertebrate animals in there Late Carboniferous, Permian quickly become the most representative of terrestrial animals, in the Late Permian who had up to 5 ~ 6 meters, like mammals reptiles — beast Hole. But by the end of the Permian, 63% of the four-footed rapid extinction of the Branch.

Mystery extinction

Scientists from the current available information, the end of the Permian mass extinction in a very short period of time of rapid, then what is destroying the Permian prosperous populations?

The current mass extinction due to a combination of different explanations, no one recognized the unanimous view. A more generally accepted view that the late Permian and may frequent eruption of the volcano. Geological evidence shows that the late Permian mass volcanic eruptions, the Earth’s surface at that time there were several volcanic eruptions, including Siberia and the south China region. Volcanic eruptions have large amounts of toxic gas, the release of large amounts of carbon dioxide, the greenhouse gas, a result of plant and animal extinction.

Research has also found that the mass extinction strata containing sulfur rich minerals, suggesting volcanic eruptions releasing large amounts of hydrogen sulfide gas, followed by acid rain, pollution of the ancient oceans, causing massive extinction of marine life. In addition, some people think the end of the Permian there was similar to the end of the Cretaceous celestial impact, the impact sites may be located in Western Australia, causing instantaneous death of a large number of biological, but such reasoning was lack of sufficient evidence.

Currently, scientists on this important historical events are the causes, mechanisms, and the environment at the time, the whole process of renewal time is not very clear, all these comments have been no sufficient evidence to prove that the end of the Permian mass extinction reason is a mystery. The well-known American scientist Douglas Irvine put the end of the Permian mass extinction described as “Oriental Express on the murder case,” that there are many different factors working together caused the end of the Permian mass extinction events.

Mankind is witnessing a new mass extinction?

Studies have shown : mass extinction, without exception, by the Global Environment arising from the severe deterioration. In recent years, due to increased human activities on the ecological environment has continued to worsen, endangered and extinct species growing to the global biodiversity poses a serious consequences, as well as a threat to the survival of mankind itself. This has caused people to doubt the planet is facing a “sixth mass extinction events?”

The recently published in “Nature” magazine says the article, 50 years later, more than 100 million land-based biological disappear from the planet. The International Federation of natural resources to protect the “2004 Global Species investigation” revealed : a global Earth more than 15,000 species of endangered species, the rate of extinction than any time in the past. Scientists have discovered that human activities causing the extinction of species extinction than natural high-speed 1,000 times per hour, have a species to extinction.

According to a conservative estimate that the current annual extinction on Earth about 30,000 species, such prehistoric extinction rate than normal (annual extinction of about three species), nearly 10,000 times faster, far more than any large prehistoric extinctions. Five major extinction by prehistoric strength and size, there are scholars who believe the current biosphere has entered a “sixth extinction” period and that the only real modern human face mass extinction process. Biological and environmental development not only aroused extensive public concern, has become a hot research scientists.

Carboniferous to Permian from both biological evolution and climate conditions at that time and so on are all at a relatively stable stage, but a time of the late Permian, the environment has been deteriorating. Such sudden changes What is the mechanism? Now the scientific community is unclear. Some scientists have proposed that the Earth’s ecological environment and the climate system, such as the rapid reduction of biodiversity, acid rain frequency, the overall deterioration of the environment, the greenhouse effect, etc., in the late Permian and environmental conditions comparable to a certain extent, it is necessary for us to attach great importance to mankind.

With the lives of the Earth, and biological environment has become a mutual restraint, mutual promotion of the Community. The Earth’s environment to create a life, to promote the development of life-changing social environment. The geological period some major life changes directly with the major global changes linked, but significant period of global change biology and the environment appear most clearly period. All the signs indicate that the earth is facing today a new twist to the Earth, environmental degradation, biodiversity dramatic reduction is a serious threat to human survival and sustainable development of natural resources. The mass extinction of the study is to explore not only the extinction model, but more importantly out of our own care. Mankind is witnessing.


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